Heat Release

Cone Calorimeter

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ISO 5660, ASTM E1354, ASTM E1474, ASTM E1740, ASTM F1550, ASTM D6113, CAN ULC 135, BS 476 Part 15

The Cone Calorimeter is the most significant bench scale instrument in the field of fire testing because it measures important real fire properties of the material being tested under a variety of preset conditions.

These measurements can be used directly by researchers or they can be used as data for input into correlation or mathematical models to predict fire development.

Directly measured properties include :

• Critical ignition flux
• Mass loss rates
• Smoke release rate
• Effective heat of combustion

Single Burning Item

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The Single Burning Item (SBI), is a method of test for determining the reaction to fire behaviour of building products (excluding floorings) when exposed to the thermal attack by a single burning item (a sand-box burner supplied with propane).

The specimen is mounted on a trolley that is positioned in a frame beneath an exhaust system.

The reaction of the specimen to the burner is monitored instrumentally and visually.

Heat and smoke release rates are measured instrumentally and physical characteristics are assessed by observation.

 

Room Corner Test

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ISO 9705, EN 14390, ASTM D 5424, ASTM D 5537, ASTM E 603, ASTM E 1537, ASTM E 1590, ASTM E 1822, NFPA 265, UL 1685, NT FIRE 25, NT FIRE 32

FTT build and supply the Room Corner Test complete with the appropriate instrumentation package or supply instrumentation to clients wishing to upgrade existing facilities or with a wish to build their own apparatus.

In the latter cases FTT supply a Gas Analysis Instrumentation Console and a Duct Section. The console contains all the necessary instrumentation to measure heat release rates and other associated parameters.

This includes an analyser developed specifically for FTT Calorimeters, incorporating an enhanced Servomex 4100 featuring a high stability temperature controlled paramagnetic oxygen sensor (and optional CO2/CO) with flow control and by-pass for fast response.

Burning Behaviour Of Bunched Cables

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EN 5039

The EN 50399 was based on IEC 60332-3 with the addition of heat release measurement and a modified air inlet system. This is accomplished by fitting a small instrumented section of ducting into the exhaust system of the rig and using this with associated FTT gas analysis instrumentation and software.

The duct section houses all gas sampling probes, temperature and mass flow probes and has ports for the smoke measuring system.

Clients already owning the FTT Dual Cone Calorimeter, ISO 9705 Room/Corner test or SBI can use their cone instrumentation to measure heat release rate from their IEC 60332-3.

Alternatively the EN 50399 Gas Analysis rack can be used to instrument other calorimeters (e.g. FTT Dual Cone Calorimeter etc.).

Fire Propagation Apparatus

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FM 4910, ASTM E 2058, ISO 12136

FTT manufactures the FM Global Fire Propagation Apparatus (FPA), a heat release calorimeter (commonly known as the Tewarson Apparatus) and have working closely with FM Global to develop the apparatus. This is the instrument developed in the 1980's and now used extensively by FM Global for a variety of insurance industry norms including clean room and cable applications. The method has been standardised by ASTM as ASTM E 2058 and ISO as ISO 12136.

The FTT FPA can be used to determine:

  • Critical heat flux
  • Thermal Response Parameter (TRP)
  • Effective heat of combustion
  • Chemical and convective heat release rates
  • Fire Propagation Index (FPI)
Non-Combustibility Test

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EN ISO 1182 - IMO FTPC Part 1 - ASTM E 2652

The FTT EN ISO 1182 (IMO FTPC Part 1, ASTM E 2652) system has been designed with significant new features.

Rather than the traditional variac control, where it is possible to supply too high a current to the heater element during the heating cycle, FTT has automated this process by using modern electronics.

The benefits of this system over traditional variac systems, which considerably extend the life of the furnace, are:

  • Soft Start
  • Ramp Rate
  • Power Limit
  • Over Temperature Device
Bomb Calorimeter

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EN ISO 1716

The FTT Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter can be used to measure the heat generated from several applications and has been designed to conform to current ASTM, ISO, EN, BS and DIN international standards.

The calorific value of the following groups of materials can be measured: -

  • Building materials (e.g. EN ISO 1716)
  • Coal, coke (e.g. ASTM D 5865)
  • Fuel (gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, No.s 1-D and 2-D diesel fuel and No.s 0-GT, 1-GT, and 2-GT gas turbines fuels), (e.g. ASTM D240-92)
  • Hydrocarbon fuels (e.g. ASTM D 4809-90)
  • Food, supplements, crops
  • Waste and refuse
  • Combustible materials, etc.
Large Scale Mattress Test

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CA TB 603, CPSC 1633

Recently the California Bureau of Home Furnishings and the Consumer Product Safety Commission determined that all residential mattresses to be sold in the US must meet a large scale heat release test based on the dual burner shown here.

FTT can offer the complete instrumentation to clients wishing to upgrade existing fire test facilities or to build their own test apparatus.

In the later case FTT supplies a variety of modules, including a Gas Analysis Instrumentation Console, a duct section, a burner, a load cell and software/data acquisition.

The specification of this instrumentation is the same for both large and small scale calorimeters and can therefore also be conveniently disconnected and used with the FTT Cone Calorimeter.

FAA Micro Scale Calorimeter

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Accurate and cost effective micro calorimetry using a Pyrolysis Combustion Flow Calorimeter (PCFC)

The FTT Micro Calorimeter was developed in co-operation with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). It determines fundamental thermo-chemical data in seconds and predicts fire properties of materials.

The technique enables parameters such as Specific Heat Release Rate (W/g), Heat of Combustion (J/g) and Ignition Temperature (°C) to be quickly determined from very small (1-50mg) specimens.It is a low cost and accurate technique; typical repeatability is ± 5%.

Micro Calorimeter data has been shown to correlate with fire test data (Cone Calorimeter, OSU), flammability results (LOI, UL94) and combustion tests (Bomb Calorimeter) and is therefore seen as a powerful, low cost tool to assess and predict flammability properties.